By Nathan Franklin
Managing Behavioral Treatment Technician, WEAP, Milwaukee
As our country starts the process of distributing vaccines for COVID-19 and re-opening our cities, many people are hoping that 2021 delivers a return to normal. We are getting that first glimpse of a promising horizon. But instead of trying to return to the old normal, we have a chance to establish a new and better normal, informed by the experiences of the past year.
The coronavirus pandemic brought many new problems to our lives in 2020, but it also exposed problems that have long existed, particularly the racial inequities that are so deeply and structurally rooted in our country.
One of the more well-documented areas of racial disparities is in the area of health care, including behavioral treatment for autism spectrum disorder (ASD), with which I am personally involved. I’ve spent the last 10-plus years providing applied behavior analysis (ABA) therapy to children with autism in Milwaukee at Wisconsin Early Autism Project (WEAP). Studies show that Black and Hispanic children are diagnosed with autism at an older age than white children, are more likely to be misdiagnosed initially, and are less likely to receive an accurate diagnosis at all. Because the best outcomes for children with ASD depend heavily on early diagnosis and treatment, reading these studies was revealing—and brought the issues of racial justice to the forefront of my personal focus.
As a white man working with many children and families of color, I find the reality of a delayed or even absent diagnosis alarming and upsetting—and consider access to ABA a social justice issue that I can personally and directly help address. While I realize the causes of these disparities are complex and must be understood through a larger lens of historic and systemic racism in our societal institutions, I believe we can all make progress addressing these inequalities by starting in our own circles to seek understanding and solutions.
The good news is that by many measurements, the diagnosis gap is beginning to show signs that it is closing, though the problem is far from solved. Getting a diagnosis is only the first step, however, after which actually accessing the necessary services is key. And here again, race, ethnicity, and socioeconomic status can affect access to treatment and the quality of treatment.
For a long time, I took for granted that the vast majority of children I’ve worked with have been Medicaid-funded. Unfortunately, many providers simply do not accept Medicaid clients. While I’m grateful to work for a company that is the exception to that rule, I would call on the federal government, state government, and providers to do more to increase access to services. No one should be denied services because of their income, and since the economic disparities in this country are tied to historic and structural racism, it is not just a matter of social justice but also racial justice to ensure that quality treatment is available to everyone who needs it.
There are other obstacles that can contribute to the lack of access to ABA. For example, many ABA services take place in a client’s home, creating an unintentional barrier for working families, given that home-based services require the presence of a parent or guardian. For families who need multiple people working multiple jobs just to make ends meet, this requirement alone can prevent them from accessing services.
One possible solution is to provide opportunities for treatment that children can receive without their parent or caregiver. In the beginning of 2021, WEAP opened a learning center in the city of Milwaukee, giving communities of color the more convenient access they didn’t previously have but needed. Access is important, and the difference between travelling across a city and having resources in your own neighborhood can be the difference between receiving services—and not.
The services provided for children with ASD are no exception to the general rule of racial inequities, though the research and our understanding are only beginning to develop. For anyone inclined towards research, this is an open invitation to look into these issues more deeply. The experiences of the past year have given us new perspectives to understand that solving a widespread problem requires a combination of research, structural changes, and personal responsibility to do our part in our own worlds. For those of us heavily involved in the world of ASD, this historic opportunity to pursue a new and better normal calls on us to recognize, understand, and address the injustices in our field—and to act with a sense of urgency to ensure that our treatment options continue to improve not only in quality but also in equality.